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外进口玩具的安全外文翻译.doc

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《外进口玩具的安全外文翻译.doc》由本站会员分享,支持在线阅读,更多《外进口玩具的安全外文翻译.doc》相关的内容可在三九文库网上搜索。 毕业设计/论文外 文 文 献 翻 译系  别 经济管理学院 专 业 班 级 国贸0703班 姓  名 评 分 指 导 教 师 华中科技大学武昌分校20 年 月 日进口玩具的安全,消费者保护和世界贸易组织的技术贸易壁垒协定:前景,进展和问题全球贸易、人权和进口的安全人类和动物受进口产品感染的风险不应该被过分夸大。受污染的二乙二醇感冒药导致100多人死亡,几十人得病,其中多达21人死亡可能与肝素有关。肝素是一种流行的抗凝剂,它广泛应用于透析和心脏手术中,以达到延缓血液凝块的目的。据美国食品与药品监督管理局(FDA)调查所知,这个主要的抗血凝药物包含一个伪造成份,美国食品与药品监督管理局采用先进的磁场核磁共振成像的测试来让它模拟真正的药物。据了解,美国食品及药品监督管理局发现多达20%的产品的活跃成分是假的。在一个快速全球化的世界中,各国应如何确保进口产品的安全呢?世贸组织成员国能单方面对玩具的制定特点或相关的工艺流程及生产方法采用新条例吗?这些问题是由技术法规和国际贸易法的相关准则以及人权法而产生的。一方面,技术法规和标准既可以作为一种贸易壁垒,同时对消费者产品偏好、质量期望和价格选择产生负面影响。技术法规和标准中有关玩具质量和安全的规定即这些规定并没有歧视性的“法理”或“事实”, 但这些标准和法规在国际之间的差异也有可能造成贸易障碍。假定组成世界贸易组织的153个成员决定创造他们自己的玩具安全法规及标准,对于一个中国玩具制造商来说,他有可能就得面对153种法规,并且还要遵守这些法规及标准,而这样会导致他失去规模经济。在另一方面, 技术法规和标准又让人们越来越认识到健康与安全条例是政府责任的核心。各国政府有主权权利和责任来保护他们的公民免受伤害。A/RES/54/165号决议在1999年通过了,联合国大会指出:“虽然世界趋于全球化,但一个国家所扮演的角色有可能影响人权,促进和保护所有人权是国家的首要责任”。A/RES/54/165号决议的第15条中也强调:“分析全球化对充分享有各项人权的影响是必要的”。其第16条是关于儿童的健康和安全,联合国公约关于儿童权利(CRC)的第3条中规定:“关于儿童的一切行动,不论是由公私社会福利机构、法院、行政当局或立法机构执行,均应以儿童的最大利益为一种首要考虑。”第17条中儿童权利委员会还对每一个孩子的生命权(第6条),健康权(第24条)和“适当年龄孩子休息和闲暇,以及从事游戏和娱乐活动”的权利进行担保。根据儿童权利公约19条的规定:“缔约国应采取一切适当的立法、行政、社会和教育措施,保护儿童在受父母、法定监护人或其他任何负责照管儿童的人的照料时,不致受到任何形式的身心摧残、伤害或凌辱 ,忽视或照料不周,虐待或剥削,包括性侵犯”。总的来说,技术法规和标准涉及了国家主权、国内安全、卫生、人权和自由贸易这些敏感的问题。政策制定者正面临着应如何采取法律和政策来充分地保护公民的权利和福利,而又不至于破坏公民的基本原则的多边贸易体制的挑战。哈佛大学国际发展中心认为:“政府法规或商品的行业标准至少在三个方面影响贸易:首先,他们可以以清楚地定义交易产品的特点、改善兼容性和可用性的方式来方便交易;他们也可以提高国内社会标准,比如公共卫生通过建立最低标准或安全要求规定;最后,他们还可以隐藏保护主义政策”。产品安全,国内管理自主权和世贸组织技术性贸易壁垒协议 政府法规和行业标准制定了一些产品的特性,TBT协定也涵盖了有关玩具的相关生产流程和生产方法。TBT协议将技术法规定义为一个“制定产品特征或相关的工艺和生产方法”的文件,它既包括了适用的行政规定,该规定是强制性的,也包括了专门术语、符号、包装、标志或标签,其要求适用于产品、工艺或生产方法。技术性贸易壁垒协议也适用于技术标准和合格评定,恰如该协议中的附件I所说的。技术性贸易壁垒协议所涵盖的产品范围较广。从本质上讲,所有产品,包括工业和农业产品都受TBT第21条协议规定。然而,采购规格是由第22条协议“政府机构对产品的编制或政府机构消费需求”规定。技术贸易壁垒是尊重国家主权,保障公民健康和安全,确保技术法规对国际贸易的变相贸易壁垒不运作之间的一条连接线。如第六段序言段所示:“任何国家都应采取措施保障出口产品的质量,保护人类健康和安全,保护动植物的生命和健康,保护生态环境,或防止欺诈行为,在此范围内认为是合理的,可以根据本协议规定,而技术贸易壁垒不适用于一系列专制或国家之间的不公平歧视。” 技术性贸易壁垒的协议和尊重国内监督管理自治虽然TBT协定的一些规定似乎限制国内监管自主,但是从该协议的其他规定来看它又保持了国内监管自主权。首先,在第2条第4款规定中表明:“各成员的技术法规是不完全的,应以相关的国际标准为基础”。当相关的囯际标准无效或不合适时这条规定是不适用的。其次,即使一个国际标准存在,各成员没必要完全依照该标准,各成员可以采用这种标准的相关部分。再次,如果成员国所采取的措施是为了挑战另外的成员国,则相关的国际标准将是有效或合理的。在“欧共体 — 沙丁鱼”中,世贸组织上诉机构认为抱怨国有义务证明被抱怨方违反了技术性贸易壁垒协议第2条第4款中的规定。因此,起诉成员不仅要表明有关国际标准没有被用作挑战法规的依据,还必须表明有关的国际标准对相应成员是一个有效或适当的手段。最后,政府的采购是不在TBT协定中的。技术性贸易壁垒协议第1条第4款中明确规定:“政府机构为其生产或消费要求所制定的采购规格不受本协定规定的约束,而应根据《政府采购协定》的范围由该协定处理。” 因此,各地方、州和联邦政府的采购规范是不在该协议下的。文献来源:Uche U. Ofodile. Import (toy) safety, consumer protection and the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade: prospects, progress and problems. Int. J. Private Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2009Import (toy) safety, consumer protection and the WTOAgreement on Technical Barriers to Trade: prospects, progress and problemsGlobal trade, human rights and import safety The risk to human and animal life of tainted imported products cannot be overstated. More than 100 people died from taking the diethylene glycol-tainted cold medicines and dozens more became ill. As many as 21 deaths may be linked to heparin, a popular blood thinner widely used in dialysis and heart procedures to stave off blood clots. According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the critical blood thinner contained a counterfeit ingredient that mimicked the real drug.14 Using sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging tests, the FDA uncovered that as much as 20% of the product’s active ingredient was an imitation.In a fast globalising world, how can countries be sure that products that arrive on their shores are safe? Can WTO member states unilaterally adopt new regulations that lay down characteristics or related processes and production methods for toys? The question arises because technical regulations and standards implicate international trade law and human rights law. On one hand, technical regulations and standards can operate as barriers to trade and negatively impact consumer product preferences, quality expectations and price options. Technical regulations and standards relating to toy quality and safety, even if not discriminatory ‘de jure’ or ‘de facto’ may create obstacles to trade by the fact that these standards and regulations vary from one country to another. Assuming the 153 members that make up the WTO decide to create their own toy safety regulations and standards, a toy manufacturer in China, for example, would be faced with some 153 regulations to comply with. The result would be loss of economies of scale. On other hand, it is increasingly recognised that health and safety regulations are at the core of government responsibility. Governments have the sovereign right and the responsibility to protect their citizens from harm. In Resolution A/RES/54/165 adopted in 1999, the United Nations General Assembly noted that ‘while globalisation, by its impact on, ‘inter alia’, the role of the state may affect human rights, the promotion and protection of all human rights is, first and foremost, the responsibility of the state’.15 Resolution A/RES/54/165 also emphasized ‘the need to analyse the consequences of globalisation for the full enjoyment of all human rights’.16 Regarding the health and safety of children, Article 3 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) stipulates that ‘[i]n all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration’.17 The CRC also guarantees to every child, the right to life (Article 6), the right to health (Article 24) and the right ‘to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child’. Pursuant to Article 19 of the CRC, states parties undertake to ‘take ‘all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of’… injury or abuse… while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child’.Overall, technical regulations and standards touch on sensitive issues of state sovereignty, domestic security, public health, human rights and free trade. The challenge for policy makers is to adopt laws and policies that adequately protect the rights and welfare of their citizens without undermining the fundamental principles of the multilateral trading system. As the Center for International Development at Harvard University rightly observed that ‘government regulations or industry standards for goods can impact trade in at least three ways: they can facilitate exchange by clearly defining product characteristics and improving compatibility and usability; they also advance domestic social goals like public health by establishing minimum standards or prescribing safety requirements; finally, they can hide protectionist policies’.18Product safety, domestic regulatory autonomy and the WTO TBT Agreement Government regulations and industry standards that lay down characteristics or related processes and production methods for toys are covered by the TBT Agreement. The Agreement defines a technical regulation as a ‘document which ‘lays down product characteristics or their related processes and production methods’, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. It may also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling requirements as they apply to a product, process or production method’.19 The TBT Agreement also applies to technical standards and conformity assessment as defined in Annex I of the Agreement.20 The TBT Agreement covers a broad range of products. Essentially, all products, including industrial and agricultural products are subject to the provisions of the agreement.21 Excluded, however, are purchasing specifications ‘prepared by governmental bodies for production or consumption requirements of governmental bodies’.22 The TBT Agreement works a fine line between respecting the sovereign right of states to safeguard the health and safety of their citizens and ensuring that technical regulations do not operate as disguised barriers to international trade. The sixth preambular paragraph reads: “Recognising that no country should be prevented from taking measures necessary to ensure the quality of its exports, or for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, of the environment, or for the prevention of deceptive practices, at the levels it considers appropriate, subject to the requirement that they are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail or a disguised restriction on international trade and are otherwise in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.”The TBT Agreement and respect for domestic regulatory autonomyWhile some provisions of the TBT Agreement appear to constrain domestic regulatory autonomy, other provisions of the Agreement appears to preserve domestic regulatory autonomy. First, the requirement in Article 2.4 that members use relevant international standards as a basis for their technical regulation is not absolute. The requirement does not apply when relevant international standards ‘would be an ineffective or inappropriate means for the fulfilment of the legitimate objectives pursued members’.38 Second, even when a pertinent international standard exists, members need not base their measure entirely on such a standard, but can use ‘relevant parts’ of such standards. Third, the burden of proof is on a member challenging another member’s measure to prove that the relevant international standards would not be an ineffective or inappropriate means for the fulfillment of the legitimate objectives pursued by the member whose measure is challenged. In ‘EC – Sardines’, the WTO Appellate Body held that the complaining state bears the burden of proving the elements of Article 2.4 as a whole. Thus, the complaining member must not only show that the relevant international standard was not used ‘as a basis for’ that challenged regulation, but must also show that the relevant international standard is an effective or appropriate means for the fulfillment of the legitimate objectives pursued by the responding member.39 Finally, government procurements are exempted from the reach of the TBT Agreement. Article 1.4 specifically provides that ‘purchasing specifications prepared by governmental bodies for production or consumption requirements of governmental bodies are not subject to the provisions ofthis Agreement’. Thus, purchasing specification by local, state and the federal government are immune from legal challenge under the Agreement.Resource:Uche U. Ofodile. Import (toy) safety, consumer protection and the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade: prospects, progress and problems. Int. J. Private Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2009
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