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外文翻译---电阻率测量瑞典南部的Enemossen尾矿坝的安全评价.doc

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UsingresistivitymeasurementsfordamsafetyevaluationatEnemossentailingsdaminSouthernSwedenInternalerosionisamajorReasonforembankmentdamfailures.Resistivitymeasurementsisanessentiallynondestructivetechnique,whichmayhavethepossibilityofdetectinginternalerosionprocessesandanomalousseepageatanearlystagebeforethesafetyof。

Thedamisatstake.ThispaperpresentsresultsfrompartofadamSafetyinvestigationconductedattheEnemossentailingsdaminsouthernSweden.Longitudinalresistivitysections,2Dmeasurementsalongthedamcrest,providedanoverviewofthewholedamandservedtodetectAnomalouszones.Inselectedareas,additionalcrosssectional2Dsurveysgavedetailedinformationaboutthegeoelectricalsituationsintheembankments。

Thisinformationisvaluableforsimilarinvestigationsasinformationaboutresistivityinembankmentconstructionmaterialisscarce.Knownproblemareaswereassociatedwithlowresistivities,eventhoughtheresistivitymeasurementsalonedidnotprovideenoughinformationtoconfidentlycometoadecisionaboutthestatusofthedams.Embankmentdamsaremadeofearthorrock。

Internalerosionisoneofthemajorcausesofembankmentdamfailures.ResistivitymeasurementsmayhavethepossibilityofdetectinginternalerosionprocessesandAnomalousseepageatanearlystagebeforethesafetyofthedamisatstake.Thetechniqueisessentiallynondestructive,whichisparticularlyimportantwhenworkingwithembankmentdamswheredrillingandotherpenetratinginvestigationsarepreferablyavoided。

ThispaperpresentsresultsfrompartofadamsafetyinvestigationconductedattheEnemossentailingsdaminsouthernSweden.TailingsdamsareatypeofEmbankmentdamthatimpoundsminingwaste.Theminingwaste,whichconsistsof?negrainedwastematerialsleftaftermechanicalorchemicalseparationofmineralsfromcrushedore,istypicallypumpedintoastoragereservoirandthetailingsdamsarebuilttoholdthesevolumesinplace。

Theaimofthisstudywastoexaminetheextentofthedamagearoundthelatestreportedsinkholeandtoexaminetheintegrityoftheentiredamsinordertodetectotherdeficiencies.Theinvestigationcomprisedtemperature,resistivity,inducedpolarisation(IP)andselfpotential(SP)measurementstogetherwithstandardvisualinspectionsandpiezometerreadings。

Partoftheresultsfromtheresistivitymeasurementswillbepresentedhere.Measuringtemperatureovertimeisapowerfulandsensitivewaytodetectleakagepathwaysandtoestimatefillowrates.Themethodies,however,limitedtoaspecificarea,andthesamegoesformostconventionalmethods.Othermethodswiththepossibilitytoscanlargerareasarethereforerequested。

andmostgeophysicalmethodsareofthiskind.Amongthemethodstested,resistivitymeasurementswereconsideredthemostsuccessful.Ageneraloverviewofallmeasurements,aswellasamoredetaileddescriptionofthedams,isgivenbySalmonandJohansson(2003).InrecentyearsmuchefforthasbeenputintodamsafetyworkinSweden.Duringthesametimeanumberofincidentsinvolvingtailingsdamhaveoccurred。

whichhaveincreasedconsciousnessamongthepublicandtheauthorities.Asaconsequence,strongfocushasalsobeenputondamsafetyfortailingsdam.EightlargetailingsdamswereinoperationinSwedenin2003,andanadditionalonecommencedin2004.Threeofthemhavebeensubjectedtouncontrollederosionthroughthedambodyorthefoundationoverthelast10yearperiod。

andoneoftheseincidentsdevelopedtoacompletefailure(Benckert2003).Whentheelectricalpropertiesofthetailingsdistinguishfromthesurroundingmaterials,resistivitymeasurementscanbeusedtoassessleakageandpropagationforenvironmentalpurposes.Thistypeofinvestigationshasbeenconductedmanytimesasregardtominedrainage(e。

g.Abraheemetal.1990;BuselliandLu2001;Yuvalandoldenburg1996).Thetechniqueissimilartotheoneusedtodetectleakagefromlandfills.Usingresistivityforsafetyinvestigationsoftailingsdamsis,however,lesscommon,butthetechniqueissimilartoleakagedetectiononothertypesofembankmentsorriverdykeswheresomerecentexamplesfromtheliteratureincludeamongothers:Panthuluetal。

2001;Titovetal.2000;VanTuyenetal.2000;Voronkovetal.2004.Lookingatthemeasurementprogramscarriedoutinsuchinvestigations,2Dsurveyingparalleltothedamalongthedamcrestoratacertainlevelontheslopesisnearlyalwaysmadeuseof.Itisoftentheonlyfeasiblewaytoconductasurveyinpractice.Mappingtrueresistivities(inversion)fromsuchdata。

however,leadstoproblemswithsevere3Deffects.Twoapproaches,bothdisregardingtheseeffectsandtherebypayinglessornoattentiontoabsoluteresistivityvalues,then,suggestthemselves.Thefirstoneistofindanomaliesinspacealongthedamcomparinghealthysectionswithknownproblemareas.Thisapproachhasbeenusedinthisstudy.Thesecondwaytotackletheproblemistofindchangesovertime。

butthisrequiresrepeatedmeasurementsorregularmonitoring.Whenitcomestodetectingareaswithanomalousseepageorinternalerosion,twoprocessesworkingagainsteachotherarecomplicatingtheissue.Firstly,theseareasgetincreasedwatercontent,whichdecreasesresistivity.Secondly,inthecaseofinternalerosion,resistivitywillincreaseduetowashoutoffinesintheearthmaterial。

Therefore,asmuchaspossible,itisessentialtobefamiliarwiththeelectricalpropertiesoftheinvolvedmaterials.TheEnemossentailingsfacilityTheZinkgruvanmineissituatedinsouthernSwedenclosetothenorthernendoflakeVattern.Mainlyzincandleadareproduced.Largevolumesoforeisinvolvedintheprocess.PartsofthetailingsarereusedasfillingsintheminebutthemajorpartisstoredintheEnemossentailingsfacilitywhichislocatedsome4kmawayfromthemine。

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