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I4.0_Comparison_EU_USA.pdf

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INDUSTRY 4.0 A COMPARISON OF THE STATUS IN EUROPE AND THE USA Filip Sabo stud.filip.sabofh-kufstein.ac.at January 2015 II STATUTORY DECLARATION I declare that I have authored this thesis independently, that I have not used other than the declared sources / resources, and that I have explicitly marked all material which has been quoted either literally or by content from the used sources。

1、 January 23, 2015 III CONTENTS Statutory Declaration II! List of Figures IV! List of Abbreviations V! Abstract VI! 1.! Introduction 1! 2.! Important Terminology 2! 2.1.! Historic Background 2! 2.2.! Industry 4.0 4! 2.3.! Smart Factories 5! 2.4.! Cyber Physical Systems 6! 2.5.

2、! Internet of Things 7! 2.6.! Difference between Cyber Physical Systems and the Internet of Things 7! 3.! Current Initiatives 8! 3.1.! USA 8! 3.2.! Europe 12! 4.! Interpretation 16! 5.! Conclusion 19! 5.1.! Recommendations for the USA 20! 5.2.! Recommendations for Europe 21! 5.3.! Next Steps 22! Bibliography 23! IV LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: The Four Industrial Revolutions 4! Figure 2: CPS Architecture 6! Figure 3: Difference between CPS and the IoT 8! Figure 4: The 50 Most Innovative Companies of 2014 9! Figure 5: Up-and-Coming Companies 9! Figure 6: The difference of the industry share on the GDP in Europe between 2001 and 2012 12! Figure 7: Knowledge about CPS and its opportunities 13! Figure 8: CPS in Production 13! Figure 9: Expected Profitability of the European Industry 16! Figure 10: Percentage of Small and Mid-Sized Companies in Europe 18! V LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BCG Boston Consulting Group CPS Cyber physical systems ERP Enterprise resource planning GDP Gross domestic product ICT Information and communication technology IIoT Industrial Internet of Things IoT Internet of Things IT Information technology R it was an example for German businesses。

3、 (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, 2014) Since then, German businesses made their way to the top in some industry sectors. Especially car manufacturing and the mechanical engineering branch are key sectors in Germany. Recently, the German car industry realized the important role of IT in the future and started collaborating with US companies to make the future car a smart product。

4、 (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 2014) Germany has done one very important part with the report of the Industrie 4.0 Working Group. This report is more than just recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative Industry 4.0. It gives the whole change a name, where everybody understands what is meant with it。

5、 There is less confusion because this term combines CPS and IoT, or more precise it combines the CPS and the IIoT. Furthermore, this report was well advertised. The media wrote many articles about it and almost any German citizen heard this term, even if he or she may not really understands what it means。

6、 This helps making people aware of this process and highlights the importance. This report can also be seen as a guideline for implementation. It shows a well-considered way, how the future industry could become reality. All of this allows to bundle and organize competencies and to act in concert。

7、 Other European countries as well as the USA should also consider organizing their efforts more. UK for example, uses the term Industry 4.0 provided by the German report as well and adapts it to its economy. It is always good to have a special term to describe the whole change. It could help decreasing uncertainties and misunderstandings while discussing topic since everybody has a clear understanding of what the terms stand for。

8、 Organizing R&D actions will lead to a more efficient progress and fewer inventions need to be done twice. Every company or institution could focus on a specific part of what needs to be done. This will lead to an efficient implementation of the next industrial revolution. 18 This report, the awareness of German businesses as well as the leading position of Germanys economy in the mechanical engineering sector give Germany a little advantage over other countries。

9、 The EU tries to push other countries as well. The cooperation between Germany and the UK is a first step to lower differences in the EU. It also combines different key competencies and lets Europe be a little step ahead. But the USA is close and it also has some good strategies on how to become the world leader after the next industrial revolution。

10、 The IT sector in the US has great opportunities and these companies are using their power to find new technologies and further extend their field of business. This shows, that even with a slight advantage Europe should be aware of the US and its capabilities. This means that the financial support is needed and must not be minimized。

11、 The financial funds of the US government seem insufficient in contrast to the Horizon 2020 program, which is currently the worlds largest funding program. (cf. Kagermann, Wahlster, & Helbig, April 2013, p. 71) The next thing where Europe needs to work on is the acceptance of these new technologies in the population and specifically the mid and small-sized companies。

12、 More than 98 percent of Europes businesses are small or mid-sized. (Vetter & Khler, 2014, p. 2) Figure 10: Percentage of Small and Mid-Sized Companies in Europe (Vetter & Khler, 2014, p. 2) These companies often have difficulties and considerations regarding the next industrial revolution。

13、 Many of them are scared, because they do not really understand 19 what the consequences will be. Even Frank Bsirske, from the German union Verdi, says that the digitalization of production will cost many jobs. This scares people and lets the implementation of Industry 4.0 become slower. (Fockenbrock。

14、 2015, p. 26) It is an opportunity for other regions like the USA to overtake Europe and gain competitiveness. Another concern of smaller German businesses is data security. As mentioned before, some German manufacturers already established collaborations with US IT businesses. Not just since the NSA leaks of Edward Snowden showed that the concerns should be taken serious。

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